USA Today reports that more states are requiring third-graders to pass a reading test before advancing to fourth grade. The article cites research by Marcus Winters finding that Florida students who were held back after not passing a third grade reading test did better academically than students who just barely passed the test and were promoted to fourth grade. In Spring 2006, Education Next published research by Marcus Winters and Jay Greene evaluating the impact of Florida’s program to hold back third grade students who are not able to pass standardized tests.
The Hoover Institution at Stanford University - Ideas Defining a Free Society
Harvard Kennedy School Program on Educational Policy and Governance
Thomas Fordham Institute - Advancing Educational Excellence and Education Reform